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East side Denis unknown song by Sam Cooke “A Change Is Gonna Come”

“A Change Is Gonna Come” by Sam Cooke I was born by the river in a little tent Oh, and just like the river I’ve been running ever since It’s

Self Driving Car: nuTonomy

Development of self driving cars and implementation providing a long term vision vs. a roadway bond “mobility” program (referenced blogs). [Camacho’s concept of “green corridors”] Singapore: The First-Mover Nation for

Development of China

Has China the resources and capability to overcome its socioeconomic and environmental challenges?

Speed-Flow-Density Relationship

Fundamentals of traffic engineering Quote: Speed-Flow-Density Relationship Speed, flow, and density are all related to each other. The relationships between speed and density are not difficult to observe in the

Technology Singularity

Technological singularity (Wikipedia) – “The technological singularity (also, simply, the singularity) is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes

East side Denis unknown song by Sam Cooke “A Change Is Gonna Come”

“A Change Is Gonna Come” by Sam Cooke

I was born by the river in a little tent
Oh, and just like the river I’ve been running ever since
It’s been a long, a long time coming
But I know a change gon’ come, oh yes it will

It’s been too hard living, but I’m afraid to die
‘Cause I don’t know what’s up there beyond the sky
It’s been a long, a long time coming
But I know a change gon’ come, oh yes it will

I go to the movie and I go down town
Somebody keep telling me don’t hang around
It’s been a long, a long time coming
But I know a change gon’ come, oh yes it will

Then I go to my brother
And I say, “Brother, help me please.”
But he winds up knockin’ me
Back down on my knees

Oh, there been times that I thought I couldn’t last for long
But now I think I’m able to carry on
It’s been a long, a long time coming
But I know a change gonna come, oh yes it will

(Wikipedia) “”A Change Is Gonna Come” is a song by American recording artist Sam Cooke, released on December 22, 1964 by RCA Victor. Produced by Hugo & Luigi and arranged and conducted by René Hall, the song was the B-side to “Shake“. The song concerns African-Americans and contains the refrain, “It’s been a long time coming, but I know a change is gonna come.” The song was inspired by various personal events in Cooke’s life, most prominently an event in which he and his entourage were turned away from a whites only motel in Louisiana. Cooke felt compelled to write a song that spoke to his struggle and of those around him, and he recorded the song for its first release on his final album, Ain’t That Good News.

Though only a modest hit for Cooke in comparison with his previous singles, “A Change Is Gonna Come” became an anthem for the Civil Rights Movement. The song is widely considered Cooke’s best composition and has been voted among the best songs ever released by various publications. In 2007, the song was selected for preservation in the Library of Congress, with the National Recording Registry deeming the song “culturally, historically, or aesthetically important.””

Self Driving Car: nuTonomy

Development of self driving cars and implementation providing a long term vision vs. a roadway bond “mobility” program (referenced blogs). [Camacho’s concept of “green corridors”]

Singapore: The First-Mover Nation for Driverless Cars

July 26, 2016 by Chunka Mui

Autonomous vehicles and connected cars are prompting a number of automakers and technology companies to reconsider their strategy. They want to avoid being left behind. But if their strategy is to build and sell driverless cars on their own, they are moving in the wrong direction. Driverless cars are not like simpler technologies, and they are not even like other motor-vehicle technologies. When it comes to this frontier, the appropriate first-mover unit of innovation is not the car, or even the car company. It is the nation.

One of the most promising autonomous vehicle startups is based on that premise. It’s a small company called nuTonomy, based in Cambridge, Mass., near its academic roots. Its cofounders, CEO Karl Iagnemma and chief technology officer Emilio Frazzoli, are MIT roboticists. Its financiers, who recently invested US$16 million in the company, are led by Highland Capital Partners and include significant participation from Fontinalis Partners, Signal Ventures, and EDBI, the dedicated corporate investment arm of the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) — the lead government agency working to enhance Singapore’s position as a global business center.

But nuTonomy is not building new cars. It is retrofitting existing vehicles (in this case, electric vehicles from Mitsubishi and Renault) to launch the world’s first commercial driverless taxi service, and it has set its sights on Singapore.

NuTonomy believes driverless taxis will be the catalyst for fast learning and widespread adoption of autonomous vehicles. It hopes to introduce autonomous cabs into Singapore as early as 2018.

In one sense, nuTonomy is competing with companies such as Google, BMW, General Motors, Baidu, and Uber, all of which have announced interest in autonomous vehicles. But nuTonomy is letting those giants battle through the tangled web of competition, policy fights, regulatory hurdles, and other entrenched interests governing the pace of driverless-car development and deployment in the U.S. while it takes its vision overseas. nuTonomy’s focus on driverless taxi fleet services rather than just driverless cars, as well as its work to establish itself in a place that is particularly supportive of innovation, and where none of the other competitors has a foothold, sets it apart.

Driverless taxis are a good place to start. They eliminate the cost of a human driver, enable high utilization, and favor electric vehicles (which are less expensive to manufacture, operate, and maintain), and in the process, they allow for radically new business models.

Further, driverless taxis can make constant mobility, on demand, at a much lower cost than owning an automobile a reality. People spend millions of dollars to own, store and service automobiles; communities spend billions on public transportation. Autonomous taxis could shift all of those expenses.

Singapore is fertile ground for this innovation. As an island nation, its urban density and finite space make it particularly sensitive to traffic congestion and land use. Roads consume more than 12 percent of the island’s area. Its aging population and limited workforce of potential professional drivers makes mobility for non-drivers an urgent policy imperative. Today, Singapore imports half of its bus drivers from other countries. Its environmental conditions — modern infrastructure, flat terrain, warm weather (no snow or ice), and well-marked roads — simplify the introduction of driverless cars. Finally, the nation’s strategic focus on fostering a high-tech, knowledge-based economy makes it unusually open to driverless-car innovation, and its tight-knit, efficiency-oriented government makes it easier to manage regulatory constraints.

Singapore has a long history of public and private support for driverless-car research, development, and testing. An area of the island center is currently open to real-world testing, and plans are in place for eventually opening up the entire island to driverless cars.

Already there is a body of experience to draw upon. Frazzoli, nuTonomy’s CTO, has been conducting driverless research in Singapore since 2009, through a partnership between MIT and the National Research Foundation of Singapore. His research focuses on the complex decision-making rules that govern autonomous driving — a factor that is especially important in “edge cases” where the car must break the rules of the road in order to operate safely and efficiently. For example, when should a driverless car cross solid-line lane markers to go around a double-parked car? When confronted with a police officer directing traffic and posted signs, which should it obey?

The research also looks explicitly at autonomous fleet management (pdf). nuTonomy has developed algorithms that coordinate and balance a fleet of driverless cars based on historical and real-time demand and road conditions. The result will almost certainly outcompete today’s taxi and ride-sharing companies. Human drivers rove, competing for fares, with little ability or incentive to optimize system-wide service. Inefficient routing wastes miles, adding to costs, congestion, and poor service. It leads to supply imbalances, lengthier wait times, and, in some cases, surge pricing.

Fleet management is especially important in Singapore, where reducing the number of vehicles is a high priority. Frazzoli and his colleagues have shown that their approach could enable a 60 percent reduction in the number of cars needed to meet all transportation demand in Singapore, while reducing the cost per mile and keeping waiting times below 15 minutes.

In an interview, Iagnemma, nuTonomy’s CEO, told me of his ambitious plans, including a major demonstration in 2016. He envisions building a fleet of fewer than 100 cars for the first operational pilots, then launching expanded and more sophisticated pilots, and ultimately launching a “radical expansion.”

Singapore’s leaders are equally ambitious. Pang Kin Keong, Singapore’s Permanent Secretary for Transport and chair of its Committee on Autonomous Road Transport, talks about “radically transforming land transportation in Singapore,” not just “to address our two key constraints — land and manpower,” but to “gain valuable insights into how we can design our towns of the future.” That last phrase is the real incentive for both the company and the city-state. Because success includes lessons far beyond technology, it will be hard for others to copy from afar. But it can be taught. In the same way that the Netherlands exports its hard-won expertise in flood prevention and holding back seawater, Singapore could become the go-to resource for making driverless vehicles work. Then nuTonomy could provide products and expertise that move around the world, from one nation to another. Together, or possibly separately, nuTonomy and Singapore could demonstrate the value of autonomous vehicles while making Singapore a first-mover nation.

NuTonomy raises $16M to make self-driving taxis a reality by 2018

Development of China

Has China the resources and capability to overcome its socioeconomic and environmental challenges?

Speed-Flow-Density Relationship

Fundamentals of traffic engineering


Speed-Flow-Density Relationship

Speed, flow, and density are all related to each other. The relationships between speed and density are not difficult to observe in the real world, while the effects of speed and density on flow are not quite as apparent.

Under uninterrupted flow conditions, speed, density, and flow are all related by the following equation:

q = k*v

q = Flow (vehicles/hour)
v = Speed (miles/hour, kilometers/hour)
k = Density (vehicles/mile, vehicles/kilometer)

Because flow is the product of speed and density, the flow is equal to zero when one or both of these terms is zero. It is also possible to deduce that the flow is maximized at some critical combination of speed and density.

Two common traffic conditions illustrate these points. The first is the modern traffic jam, where traffic densities are very high and speeds are very low. This combination produces a very low flow. The second condition occurs when traffic densities are very low and drivers can obtain free flow speed without any undue stress caused by other vehicles on the roadway. The extremely low density compensates for the high speeds, and the resulting flow is very low.



TRC June 2011 75 Years of the Fundamental Diagram for Traffic Flow Theory PDF



Technology Singularity

Technological singularity

(Wikipedia) – “The technological singularity (also, simply, the singularity) is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization.”

Per Ray Kurzweil reverse engineering of the human brain by 2029. So much for humanitarian optimism if aiding the military. “…only need to look at the 20th century when 180 million people died in the wars…”. At least Kurzweil has some prospective.

Neil deGrasse Tyson and Ray Kurzweil “angry with you for taking our word singularity….it had a perfectly good use…”

  • linear progression vs. exponential progression
  • expand the size of neocortex

Noam Chomsky interview on the singularity is science fiction

“It’s a common theme in science fiction — mankind struggles to survive in a dystopian futuristic society. Scientists discover too late that their machines are too powerful to control. Computers and robots force the human race into servitude. But this popular plot might not belong within the realm of fiction forever. Discussed by philosophers, computer scientists and women named Sarah Connor, this idea seems to gain more credence every year.”




Austin Neighborhood Council Meeting: August 24, 2016 – Notes

Notes from attending the ANC general meeting.

Have to appreciate the experience found in public observations and comments.

Ghost cars” – Waiting at a red light while crossing “ghost cars” have the green light. Sort of a tongue in cheek statement made during the meeting. A very descriptive way to express driver frustration (perhaps).

Side note: Southbound right turning traffic on Lamar has to yield to pedestrians and runners crossing 24th St. which reduces street capacity. The conflicts for street capacity between cars, pedestrians, bicyclists, and buses is challenging.

Something about rewarding a person with a desert for eating a salad while the dog eats the desert. (It was funny).
General request from audience to ask development to pay for itself. It is a valid comment.
It was mentioned that studies indicate that bus ridership increases with a bus frequency of 15 minutes headway.  Conventional wisdom challenges the 15 minutes considering Texas weather. It is a valid comment.  Question: why 15 minutes and not 20 minutes?
It was suggested to eliminate Capital Metro and provide vouchers for transit users.  Interesting and first time this concept is noted.  It fits the Uber business model but is it feasible?
David King resolution on affordable housing. Highlights:
  • City affordable housing program has produced 1,163 affordable housing unites since 2005, 232 are for families earning at or below 50% the median family income.
  • Estimated shortage of affordable housing is 48,000.
  • Quoted Austin American-Statesman “56% of African-American homeowners who left Austin…soaring housing costs forced them out of the city”
  • A “broad-based low-rate affordable housing linkage fee in new construction…” use to build affordable housing.
  • David King ANC VP 2 dking@austin.rr.com
Side note: Shift conversation from building affordable housing to preventing low income families moving out of the city.  Two groups 1) those renting and 2) home owners. Renters might need subsidy.  Home owners might need property tax protection (Gavino Florez example).  Consider half lot affordable housing program.
On some of the “conspiratory” had to be there to understand:
Promises, Promises (Wikipedia) (The Apartment)

The Fantasticks (Wikipedia)

Best Little Whorehouse in Texas (Wikipedia)

Public comment:

The Braess’ paradox

Wikipedia quote: “Braess’ paradox or Braess’s paradox is a proposed explanation for a seeming improvement to a road network being able to impede traffic through it. It was discovered in 1968 by mathematician Dietrich Braess, who noticed that adding a road to a congested road traffic network could increase overall journey time, and it has been used to explain instances of improved traffic flow when existing major roads are closed. The paradox may have analogues in electrical power grids and biological systems. It has been suggested that in theory, the improvement of a malfunctioning network could be accomplished by removing certain parts of it.

Dietrich Braess, a mathematician at Ruhr University, Germany, noticed the flow in a road network could be impeded by adding a new road, when he was working on traffic modelling. His idea was that if each driver is making the optimal self-interested decision as to which route is quickest, a shortcut could be chosen too often for drivers to have the shortest travel times possible. More formally, the idea behind Braess’ discovery is that the Nash equilibrium may not equate with the best overall flow through a network.[1]

The paradox is stated as follows:

“For each point of a road network, let there be given the number of cars starting from it, and the destination of the cars. Under these conditions one wishes to estimate the distribution of traffic flow. Whether one street is preferable to another depends not only on the quality of the road, but also on the density of the flow. If every driver takes the path that looks most favorable to him, the resultant running times need not be minimal. Furthermore, it is indicated by an example that an extension of the road network may cause a redistribution of the traffic that results in longer individual running times.”

Adding extra capacity to a network when the moving entities selfishly choose their route can in some cases reduce overall performance. That is because the Nash equilibrium of such a system is not necessarily optimal. The network change induces a new game structure which leads to a (multiplayer) prisoner’s dilemma. In a Nash equilibrium, drivers have no incentive to change their routes. While the system is not in a Nash equilibrium, individual drivers are able to improve their respective travel times by changing the routes they take. In the case of Braess’ paradox, drivers will continue to switch until they reach Nash equilibrium despite the reduction in overall performance.

If the latency functions are linear, adding an edge can never make total travel time at equilibrium worse by a factor of more than 4/3.[2]

Possible instances of the paradox in action

Traffic: In Seoul, South Korea, a speeding up in traffic around the city was seen when a motorway was removed as part of the Cheonggyecheon restoration project.[4] In Stuttgart, Germany, after investments into the road network in 1969, the traffic situation did not improve until a section of newly built road was closed for traffic again.[5] In 1990 the temporary closing of 42nd Street in New York City for Earth Day reduced the amount of congestion in the area.[6] In 2008 Youn, Gastner and Jeong demonstrated specific routes in Boston, New York City and London where that might actually occur and pointed out roads that could be closed to reduce predicted travel times.[7] In 2009, New York experimented with closures of Broadway at Times Square and Herald Square, which resulted in improved traffic flow and permanent pedestrian plazas.[8]”

How Closing Roads Could Speed Up Traffic – The Braess Paradox

 “Scientific Fact: closing roads could actually improve traffic”

Note: The logic explained in the video might not be the intent of the Braess’ paradox.  The Braess’ paradox may indicate that, given drivers alternative choices of routes, drivers may pick alternative routes to reach their destination based on perceived benefits. A shorter time might not necessarily represent one of the benefits.
The perception that closing of a roadway improves traffic may not be 100% correct.  Closing of roads or lanes have related impacts. One of these impacts, when reducing roadway capacity, is shifting of travel routes i.e. some drivers may select a different route; therefore, the perceived traffic flow improvement at one location may be offset by increased delay on another location.
If not mistaken, the Braess’ paradox might have been quantified by a study done in Paris in reference to the addition of light rail where traffic shifted from the boulevard to the ring road (highway) creating a greater delay in the ring road (highway) see: Presentation: Pierre Kopp, Professor of Economcis – Paris Light Rail. Also some capacity analysis comparing two modes is provided at Better Understanding Transportation Capacity: Roadway vs. Light Rail.

ANC meeting agenda

Austin Neighborhoods Council
General Membership Meeting
August 24, 2016, 7:00 PM
Austin Energy, 721 Barton Springs Rd., Austin, TX 78704
A Strong City Needs Strong Neighborhoods
7:00- 7:06 1. Call to Order/ Welcome– Introductions of Members (6 min)
7:06- 7:11 2. Resolution Vote: ANC Resolution for a Department of Neighborhoods (5 min)By David King, ANC VP2.
7:11- 7:19 3. Presentation: Capital Planning Office Role and General Bond (8 min) Development, By Mike Trimble. Director, Capital Planning Office
7:19- 7:27 4. Presentation: The Bond Oversight Commission’s Role in the City’s (8 min) Bond Process, By Moses Garcia, Vice Chair, Bond Oversight Commission.
7:28- 8:03 5. Panel Presentation: Go B-I-G- The Mobility Bonds, (25/10 min)
Moderated by Ben Wear, Transportation Writer, Austin American-Statesman
Jim Wick and Ted Siff– Move Austin Forward
Mike Levy– Founder and Retired Publisher, Texas Monthly
Roger Falk– Travis County Taxpayers Union
Q & A
8:04- 8:11 6. Resolution Vote: ANC’s Resolution on Affordable Housing, (7 min) By David King, ANC VP2.
8:11- 8:21 7. Presentation: Being an Assistant City Manager, (10 min)
By Bert Lumbreras, Assistant City Manager COA
8:22- 8:32 8. Presentation: Development Services Department Update, (10 min) By Rodney Gonzales, Director, COA Development Services Department
8:33- 8:39 9. CAG Members of the Month: (6 min) Susan Moffat, Kevin Wier, Patricia King
8:40- 8:50 10. Presentation: CodeNEXT Update, (10 min) By Jim Duncan, Chair, CodeNEXT Citizen’s Advisory Group
8:51- 8:52 11. Announcements: (2 min)
a. ANC Membership Update- David King, ANC VP2 (30 sec)

Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

  • He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  • He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  • He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
  • He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
  • He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  • He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
  • He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
  • He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
  • He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
  • For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
  • For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
  • For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
  • For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
  • For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
  • For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
    For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
  • For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
  • For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  • He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
  • He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
  • He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
  • He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Zaragoza, Spain: Se instalan semáforos inteligentes junto a cámaras térmica en Zaragoza

Blog on implementation of new traffic control technologies for bicyclists. Need to find additional documentation.

  • Confirm if detection is motion, thermal or magnetic.
  • Signal appears to be added to northbound on Marques de la Cadena for through and right turning bicyclists.
  • Per description a protected green might be provided for bicyclists during the green phase for northbound traffic.

Conclusively, there is no conclusion. Looks like the system had some fails and needed fixing.  However detection is one element.  The other is coordination of signals with traffic and then bicyclists.  Sounds complicated.

Build a vehicular underpass for through traffic and simplify surface traffic adding bicycle lanes.  Possibly extend the underpass under Calle Jose Oto, Plaza Mozart, and Cmo las Torrecillas.

Se instalan semáforos inteligentes junto a cámaras térmica en Zaragoza

Actualmente, en la búsqueda de proporcionar mejores estrategias para transportación y circulación urbana se intenta ofrecer soluciones en dónde se toma consideración inclusive a quienes desean emplear una bicicleta (uno de los medios de transporte más sencillo, rápido y completamente limpio). Y España no es la excepción, ya que así lo afirman el reciente uso de unos interesantes semáforos que se enfocan en tomar en cuenta a los ciclistas.

Esta acción, de instalar semáforos inteligentes, es algo que se está llevando acabó por el ayuntamiento de Zaragoza; y la particularidad de estas herramientas para ayudar en la circulación, es la posibilidad de activarse mediante el uso de una cámara térmica que logra detectar el movimiento de cualquier bicicleta. En tanto que los primeros semáforos se han colocado alrededor dela plaza Mozart.


Características del proyecto de movilidad urbana

Ahora bien, de parte del personal de Movilidad del Ayuntamiento han comentado que al asistir a ferias y exhibiciones se pudieron apreciar ciertas cámaras térmicas que se emplean en varias otras ciudades y que tienen como objetivo el contabilizar a los peatones; y pensando en aplicar un uso distinto, dichas cámaras se podrían utilizar para la circulación de ciclistas y permitir la activación de los semáforos para quién utiliza bicicleta.

Lo anterior con la intención de ayudar en mejorar la circulación vehicular, ya que hay ciertos puntos ubicados en la ciudad en dónde los carriles para la bicicleta no cuentan con gran afluencia de ciclistas, lo que repercute en bastante tiempo muerto para quién transitan en coche debido a los semáforos en rojo que priman la circulación de bicicletas sin ningún tipo de discriminación.

Qué arrojan las primeras pruebas

En tanto, hace sólo un par de semanas que han inicio las pruebas del empleo de este tipo de dispositivos, teniendo como punto de partida la plaza Mozart. Particularmente, han sido dos puntos dónde se han instalado cámaras térmicas en sincronización con los semáforos (Marqués de la Cadena rumbo a Valle de Broto -previó a cruzar plaza Mozart- y con sentido de Las Fuentes previo a realizar un giro a la derecha para llegar hasta la avenida de Cataluña).

Estas cámaras han sido colocadas cerca de cinco metros previos al llegar al semáforo, y en el preciso instante en que circula una bicicleta, se activa el semáforo para dar luz verde a los ciclistas. Pero, si no se detecta circulación de alguna bicicleta, el semáforo para circulación vehicular se mantiene en verde, con lo cual se previenen el estar en retenciones que no son necesarias.

Al final, en estos momentos todo lo anteriormente expuesto sólo se encuentra en un trazado teórico, ya que en los primeros días de empleo se han mostrado algunos inconveniente y desajustes, problemáticas técnicas que serán revisadas. Mientras que para próximos días se tienen previsto la reactivación de las cámaras (que ahora se encontrarán sincronizadas con carteles informativos de utilidad para ciclistas y pulsadores colocados en semáforos). Por lo cual, esto es una iniciativa totalmente innovadora para España y que busca ayudar en obtener una mejor regulación del tráfico de bicicletas y vehicular.

Esta nota tiene como base de información el Heraldo de Aragón.

Recuerda que en MarchasyRutas.es puedes hallar todo lo referente a eventos cicloturistas, además de ser un punto de encuentro para todos aquellos que creen en la bicicleta como mejor medio de transportación.

El Ayuntamiento prueba semáforos inteligentes con cámara térmica para bicis

Las primeras se han instalado en la plaza Mozart para conseguir más fluidez en el tráfico.

P. Figols. Zaragoza Actualizada 06/06/2016


Semáforo para bicis conectado a una cámara térmica, en la plaza Mozart.Raquel Labodía

Bicicletas y coches comparten cada vez más espacio en la ciudad. Con el objetivo de hacer más fluido el tráfico y seguir favoreciendo esta convivencia, el Ayuntamiento está probando unos novedosos semáforos inteligentes para bicis. Se trata de unos semáforos que se activan con una cámara térmica que detecta el movimiento de las bicis. Los primeros se han instalado en la plaza Mozart.

“En determinados puntos de la ciudad el carril bici no tiene mucha afluencia ciclista y se producen tiempos muertos para los coches con el semáforo en rojo para ellos. En una feria vimos unas cámaras térmicas que se usan en otras ciudades para contar peatones. Pensamos darles un uso diferente. Las cámaras se pueden usar para detectar el paso de ciclistas y activar los semáforos para las bicis”, explica José Antonio Chanca, adjunto al jefe del servicio de Movilidad del Ayuntamiento.

La semana pasada comenzaron las pruebas con estos dispositivos en la plaza Mozart. Se han instalado cámaras térmicas conectadas con los semáforos en dos puntos: en Marqués de la Cadena en sentido Valle de Broto antes de cruzar la plaza Mozat, y en sentido puente de Las Fuentes antes de hacer el giro a la derecha hacia la avenida de Cataluña. Las cámaras están colocadas unos cinco metros antes del semáforo. Cuando pasa una bicicleta, activan el semáforo en verde para los ciclistas. Cuando no pasa ninguna bici, el semáforo está en verde para los coches y así se evitan las retenciones innecesarias.

Ésta es la teoría, porque en los primeros días se han detectado algunos “desajustes”, que los técnicos van a revisar. En los próximos días se volverán a activar las cámaras. También se colocarán pulsadores en los semáforos y carteles informativos para los ciclistas. Se trata de una iniciativa pionera en España para regular el tráfico de bicicletas.

Estos semáforos inteligentes para ciclistas podrían instalarse en otros puntos de la ciudad con poca circulación de ciclistas. Además, el servicio de Movilidad está instalando semáforos intermitentes para bicis en puntos donde coinciden con pasos de peatones (siempre con prioridad para los que van caminando), como los del paseo de la Independencia.

“Intentamos favorecer la movilidad ciclista, sin perder de vista la seguridad de peatones y ciclistas. Y semáforos como los nuevos de la plaza Mozart evitarán retenciones innecesarias de coches. Así todos salen ganando”, subraya José Antonio Chanca.

En Zaragoza se producen seis atropellos cada semana y un accidente de bici cada dos días

En 2015 se registraron en la ciudad 3.075 accidentes de tráfico. Bajan los sucesos con bicis implicadas: el año pasado hubo 179.

P. Figols. Zaragoza 12/05/2016

Cada dos días hay un accidente de tráfico en Zaragoza con bicicletas implicadas. El año pasado se registraron 179 accidentes de bici en la ciudad, un 13% menos que el año anterior, según los datos publicados recientemente por el Ayuntamiento en la web municipal.
En 2015 se registraron en Zaragoza un total de 3.075 accidentes de tráfico, con tres fallecidos y 1.490 heridos. El número de accidentes ha aumentado un 6,5% respecto al año anterior pero ha disminuido un 10% respecto a 2011 (ese año hubo 3.405). El Ayuntamiento ofrece información muy detallada sobre los accidentes, personas afectadas, vehículos implicados y calles, dentro de su Catálogo de datos abiertos y su política de transparencia.
De cada accidente publica una ficha en la que figura el día, lugar, causas y características del suceso. Detalla incluso el estado del pavimento y el tiempo que hacía.

El año pasado hubo 295 atropellos en Zaragoza, una cifra similar a 2014. En los accidentes de tráfico de la ciudad estuvieron implicados 2.450 turismos, 519 motos, 260 autobuses, 191 camiones, 179 bicicletas, 105 taxis y 22 tranvías.

Menos accidentes de bici
Las estadísticas demuestran que aumenta el número de accidentes de turismos y motos, pero disminuye el de bicicletas. En 2015 hubo 179 accidentes de bici, en 2014 fueron 205, en 2013 fueron 219, en 2012 se registraron 217 y en 2011 fueron 197.
“Cuanta más gente va en bici se reduce el número de accidentes. Zaragoza empieza a tener cultura ciclista y la bicicleta ya es tenida en cuenta como un medio de transporte más. Tanto ciclistas como otros conductores se están acostumbrando a la presencia de las bicis en la calle”, afirma Perico Ruiz, miembro de Pedalea.
Entre las calles más peligrosas para los ciclistas figuran el Coso (8 accidentes en 2015), Camino de las Torres (7), Tercer Cinturón (7) y Echegaray (5). Pedalea destaca Camino de las Torres: “Nos llegan muchas quejas de ciclistas de esta vía. El carril bici está encajado, hay poca visibilidad en los cruces y es una calle con mucha densidad de tráfico. También hemos recibido quejas del nuevo carril bici de Juan Pablo Bonet”, apunta Perico Ruiz.

Casi 300 atropellos
Cada semana se producen en Zaragoza seis atropellos. El colectivo Acera Peatonal destaca que “es una barbaridad”. El número de atropellos registrados en 2015 (295) es similar al año anterior (296) y supone un descenso respecto a 2013 (364) y 2021 (325).
“Nos preocupa mucho que aceptemos estas cifras como algo normal. Son muchos atropellos y se debería hacer todo lo posible para evitarlos. Un porcentaje muy alto de ellos se producen en pasos de peatones. Algunos se deben a imprudencias de los peatones, pero gran parte son por falta de atención de los conductores”, afirma Fernando Navarro, portavoz de Acera Peatonal. El colectivo reclama más control policial en los pasos de peatones -como se hace en otras ciudades- y en las calles de velocidad limitada a 30 kilómetros por hora.



Un carril bici cruzará el puente de Hierro y llegará hasta avenida Cataluña

Zaragoza dispone de más de 8.000 plazas de aparcamiento para bicicletas

Los espacios para bicis en los cruces de Independencia, ocupados por quien no debe

El Ayuntamiento estudia crear una unidad de Policía Local en bici

El paseo de la Constitución tendrá carril bici, carril bus y menos espacio para los coches

Las bicicletas toman Zaragoza este fin de semana


Las aseguradoras introducen en el mercado pólizas para ciclistas

En rotonda quién tiene prioridad: ¿el ciclista o el conductor?

Este jueves se abrirá el carril bici entre Sagasta y San Ignacio de Loyola

¿Dónde están y con qué usos los más de 3.000 solares de Zaragoza?

“Es absurdo que un conductor condenado por atropello siga conduciendo”

La DGT actualiza su mapa de tramos más peligrosos con 90 ramales aragoneses

Los puntos calientes de la bicicleta en Zaragoza

De la estación intermodal al parque Grande por bici

Bonds vs Fees

Some bond programs indicate the cost to property owners is minimal, $5 to $10 per month.

Does it make sense to implement a bond program if and when voters can accept to be charged a similar fee just like the City of Austin does in terms of transportation fees?

Why pay the overhead, interests on debt and add “debt” to the public coffer?

See following references posted on August 18, 2016:

What is a the transportation user fee?


Below is from the Austin bicycle coalition website:

Part of every residential City of Austin utility bill is a charge for “Transportation User Fee” (TUF). One of the provisions of this fee is that people who don’t own or drive cars are exempt from the fee. You can easily claim your exemption by calling the City’s utility billing department at 494-9400.
The monthly amount charged for TUF varies slightly depending on whether you live in a house, duplex, or apartment, but is around $3.30/month, or $39.60/year.
Notice that the exemption actually has nothing to do with whether you cycle; you get the exemption if you don’t own and don’t drive a car.
This exemption is not new, it’s just not widely known. The exemption has always been a part of the TUF, which was authorized by the City Council in the mid-90s. If you want to check it out for yourself, the text for the TUF and the exemption are found in 14-10 of the Austin City Code. (The exemption for non-motorists is listed under 14-10-14(D)(1).)
Note: We’ve had reports that City phone reps are denying the TUF exemption to callers who have a driver’s license, even if they don’t own or drive a car. This is wrong; merely possessing a driver’s license shouldn’t disqualify you from getting the exemption. If they try to do this to you, contact the Urban Transportation Commission.

Related blogs:

San Antonio: Council Reviews ‘Rough Draft’ Priorities for $850 Million Bond

Note: Bond programs indicate the cost to property owners is minimal $5 to $10 per month. It does not make sense to implement a bond program if and when voters can accept to be charged a similar fee just like the City of Austin does in terms of transportation fees. See following references:

What is a the transportation user fee?

 06-24-2010, 10:25 AM
256 posts, read 865,887 times
Reputation: 239

Below is from the Austin bicycle coalition website:

Part of every residential City of Austin utility bill is a charge for “Transportation User Fee” (TUF). One of the provisions of this fee is that people who don’t own or drive cars are exempt from the fee. You can easily claim your exemption by calling the City’s utility billing department at 494-9400.
The monthly amount charged for TUF varies slightly depending on whether you live in a house, duplex, or apartment, but is around $3.30/month, or $39.60/year.
Notice that the exemption actually has nothing to do with whether you cycle; you get the exemption if you don’t own and don’t drive a car.
This exemption is not new, it’s just not widely known. The exemption has always been a part of the TUF, which was authorized by the City Council in the mid-90s. If you want to check it out for yourself, the text for the TUF and the exemption are found in 14-10 of the Austin City Code. (The exemption for non-motorists is listed under 14-10-14(D)(1).)
Note: We’ve had reports that City phone reps are denying the TUF exemption to callers who have a driver’s license, even if they don’t own or drive a car. This is wrong; merely possessing a driver’s license shouldn’t disqualify you from getting the exemption. If they try to do this to you, contact the Urban Transportation Commission.

Council Reviews ‘Rough Draft’ Priorities for $850 Million Bond

 san antonio bond 4

Rendering of the proposed land bridge at Memorial Park in Houston as part of its $200 million master plan. Image courtesy of Nelson Byrd Woltz.

…City staff revealed preliminary 2017 Municipal Bond project estimates and spending priorities to City Council that would direct more than half (54%) of the historic $850 million bond to street, bridge, and sidewalk projects throughout San Antonio while dividing up the rest between investments in drainage and flood control (17%), parks and recreation (14%), facilities (12%), and other neighborhood improvements (4%).

san antonio bond 3

Preliminary estimates of bond project funding broken down by category. Image courtesy of the City of San Antonio.

The biggest bond program in the city’s history will ultimately go before voters in May 2017, but not before an extensive public vetting process and City Council approval.

(Read More: Urban Literacy: What is a Municipal Bond?)

The question of how to divvy up funding comes with another age-old concept: The needs and wants vastly outweigh the resources, as City Manager Sheryl Sculley routinely reminds the Council. Tensions are already building between districts and Council members that want to ensure an equitable distribution of public dollars.

…Amid these categories lie $328 million worth of so-called “transformational” projects, most located in the city’s urban core, that are considered to have a citywide impact.

  • Zona Cultural area streets: $43 million
  • Broadway Corridor streets and amenities: $43 million
  • World Heritage area streets, sidewalks, parks, and cultural arts center: $37 million
  • San Pedro Creek Improvements Project and area streets and drainage: $36 million
  • Neighborhood improvements, housing bond: $30 million
    • Affordable housing bond could be between $10-25 million, leaving the rest for other improvements like sidewalks, relocation assistance, property rehabilitation and purchase, etc.  Read more here.
  • Hemisfair internal streets and Civic Park: $26 million
  • Port San Antonio drainage: $24 million
  • Brooks City Base streets: $23 million
  • Alamo Plaza public areas: $22 million
  • Brackenridge Park improvements and San Antonio Zoo parking garage: $19 million
  • Hardberger Park land bridge $15 million
  • Convention Center area streets: $10 million
san antonio bond 2

A rendering of how the San Pedro Creek Improvements Project plans to redevelop the creek adjacent to the Spanish Governor’s Palace. Rendering courtesy of the San Antonio River Authority.

Click here to download the presentation given to City Council.

Most of these projects leverage – or at least plan on leveraging – other City, State, federal, and private sector investments. For instance, the Alamo Plaza funding will tie into the in-progress Alamo Plaza Master Plan that has already gathered private and public funding; the $175 million San Pedro Creek Improvements Project will still have a gap to fill between the City’s bond funding and the County’s $125 million commitment; and Hardberger Park’s land bridge is estimated to cost around $23 million.

But the bulk of the divvying, according to City officials, will be done by citizens in this initial stage. The bond committee’s project recommendations will go to City Council, which will likely make adjustments, in late January 2017 or early February to get on the May ballot.

Councilman Mike Gallagher (D10) and Councilman Joe Krier (D9), who represent Northside suburban districts largely outside of Highway Loop 410, expressed some concern that the rough draft of the bond program favors urban core infrastructure and major projects. Krier noted that more than half of the “transformational” projects are in the urban core, save for Port SA, Brooks City Base, and Hardberger Park. This might make the bond program seem “unbalanced” and, therefore, a hard sell for his constituents.

“I am a huge advocate, and have always been, of downtown,” Krier said, adding that the projects in the immediate downtown area add up to more than $180 million. “(That amount) is a big slug for one sector of the city and all of us, in theory, benefit from a healthy downtown … but in fact, I’m going to be getting feedback from voters in my district about the proportionality of that.”

san antonio bond 1

Site plan of Hemisfair Park’s redevelopment and expansion. Image courtesy of the Hemisfair Park Area Redevelopment Corporation.

Projects that have demonstrable State and federal dollars dedicated to them will be an easier sell, Krier said. The rest of the funding needed for the Hardberger Park land bridge, which straddles Districts 8 and 9, will be raised by the private sector.

“If there was a way to pull (private dollars) into the argument (for these downtown investments),” he said, “that would be helpful. I suspect there’s an opportunity to do some private fundraising and/or matching of bond money with projects like HPARC (Hemisfair) and Brackenridge Park.”

Gallagher isn’t fundamentally against investment in downtown either, he said, but what made him pause about the preliminary recommendations is the “fairness of the distribution of the bond money.”

He has sat on previous years’ bond committees before and remembers the struggle to balance the needs citywide. The big ticket items, Gallagher told the Rivard Report after the meeting, will likely resonate with District 10 residents as catalytic projects. At the very least they will see places like Hemisfair Park and the Alamo as places they would take visiting friends and family, he said.

“The problem is, though, they are also looking at the potholes, the broken bridges, the flooding problems, and (say), ‘What should we be spending our money on?’” he said, adding that striking a balance between those needs and investing in larger projects will be key in creating a bond ballot that everyone can vote for.

(Image not included) Work crews prep part of East Commerce Street near East Houston Street for a one-year project funded by the 2012 Municipal Bond that will necessitate the nine-month closure of that part of the road. Bridge reconstruction and sidewalks are in the works. Photo by Edmond Ortiz

Gallagher and several other Council members are holding off on judgement of of the bond priorities until the bond committees have had a chance to weigh in first…

Councilman Rey Saldaña (D4) recognized that there will be some imbalance between district funding, especially when it comes to major project investments. The Alamo, for instance, is technically in District 1, but every Texan has ownership of it, Saldaña said. “It’s a difficult conversation to have … everyone is well within their rights to ask about the overall rough proportionality (of funding) in their districts, but I think you have to be clear that this (bond) will have a citywide impact – San Pedro Creek being (another) example.”

For 163 citizens – members and chairs of various levels on five different bond committees – the next several months will be spent attending at least six public meetings and sorting through proposed priority lists compiled by Council members and City staff. Each funding category has its own committee that Council members appoint three committee members to while the mayor appoints two co-chairs.

Mayor Ivy Taylor released her picks for committee co-chairs Wednesday afternoon.

  • Parks & Recreation Committee: Coca-Cola Government Relations Director Luisa Casso and Dignowity Hill Neighborhood Association President Brian Dillard
  • Facilities Improvement Committee: San Antonio Hotel and Lodging Association Executive Director John Clamp and Chelsea’s Catering & Bar Service Director Joe Linson
  • Streets, Bridges & Sidewalks Committee: Tech Bloc CEO David Heard and San Antonio Medical Foundation CEO Jim Reed
  • Drainage & Flood Control Committee: San Antonio Hispanic Chamber of Commerce President and CEO Ramiro Cavazos and local attorney Alex Perez
  • Neighborhood Improvement Committee: San Antonio for Growth on the Eastside Executive Director Jackie Gorman and Greenboro Homes President Jim Leonard

Several Council members have already selected their 15 citizen representatives while others are still coming up with names. The bond program tri-chairs are SA Tomorrow Tri-Chair Darryl Byrd, marketing and communications specialist and SAISD Foundation Co-Founder Carri Baker, and IBC Bank Senior Vice President Eddie Aldrete.

City Manager Sheryl Sculley reported that 91% of the 140 projects that were part of the 2012 Municipal Bond are either completed or underway and the final projects are nearing the end of their design phases.

Completion of the last bond program on time and on budget adds to voter confidence in the next cycle of projects, Sculley said.

Related Stories The Rivard Report:

SAISD Board: Bond and Tax on Ballot

San Antonio Independent School District’s (SAISD) board of trustees unanimously voted Monday to place a $450 million bond and a 13-cent increase in the district’s Maintenance and Operation (M&O) tax on the Nov. 8 General Election ballot.

If passed, the district would direct the bond toward renovating its 13 neediest schools, while splitting new M&O revenues between expanding extracurricular activities and updating classrooms to meet 21st century standards.

Board President Patti Radle (D5) described the increases as the city’s responsibility to its students.  “We can’t keep doing the same thing we’ve been doing in the past,” Radle told the trustees directly before the vote. “And to do more and to do it better, it takes dollars… We are ready to be very bold.”

According to the 16-member Blue Ribbon Task Force recommending both rates, if passed, the M&O tax increase would go into effect immediately, adding an estimated $91 to the average homeowner’s annual tax bill. Assuming fixed property values, this would rise to $175 by 2020 as increases in the district’s Interest and Sinking (I&S) tax, which services bonds, are gradually phased in.

According to Superintendent Pedro Martinez, these measures are the district’s only opportunity to tap into additional state funds and “provide students what they need.”  This is because the Tax Ratification Election (TRE) this November, which would raise the M&O tax to the state-allowed maximum of $1.17 per $100 of taxable property value, would not only generate an additional estimated $15.6 million in local tax revenues, but also trigger $16.5 million in state funding.

Approximately one-third of school districts in the state currently tax at the maximum rate, while, according to Martinez, another 100 are putting M&O increases on the ballot this fall.

Martinez says the emphasis on 21st century classrooms and extracurricular programs is based on national and district-specific research.  “It’s purely driven by need,” he explained in an interview.

Not only do many SAISD students lack essential technology at home, but their schools currently fail to provide the basic technological exposure needed to prepare them for the workplace. Moreover, Martinez cited research that shows how students participating in after school programs regularly perform highest, while summer programs, usually only affordable to affluent students, are critical to preventing a dramatic summer backslide in student performance.

To trustee Steve Lecholop (D1), it’s all about putting money in the classrooms. “This money that we would get from the TRE, which is going to be supplemented by the State, is going to help us take a giant leap forward in the quality of education we’re providing to our students,” Lecholop said. “It’s incredibly important that the community understand that their tax dollars will be going directly into classrooms to be used for teaching our students.”

The M&O increase would provide a continuous revenue stream to be applied to all schools in SAISD, allowing the district to improve “two to three schools every single year, regardless of a bond program,” according to trustee Ed Garza (D7).

The $450 million bond, on the other hand, would emulate the SAISD 2010 Bond, prioritizing schools that haven’t experienced renovations in over 40 years and fail to meet current standards and code requirements. These schools include: G.W. Brackenridge, Burbank, Edison, Jefferson, Lanier, Sam Houston, and Fox Tech high schools; Davis, Irving, Tafolla, and H. Rogers middle schools; and J.T. Brackenridge and Bowden elementary schools.

“The people in the Burbank community can see what has happened at Burbank (High School) and the other particular schools (renovated in the 2010 bond),” Board Vice President Arthur Valdez said. “They’re very excited on this next bond to see that we continue to have our schools upgraded to the 21st century.”

A 12-cent increase on the I&S tax rate over the course of five years – from $0.34 to $0.46 – would pay for the bond. Estimated tax increases are based on a static average taxable homestead value of $70,023 and do not account for rising property value.

According to a statement released by the district, however, increases in revenues generated through rising property value would not augment the district’s budget, since “any increase in revenue generated by higher property values is offset by a decrease in state funding.”

To task force member Rachel Ponce, who graduated from SAISD and raised her children and grandchildren there, a higher tax rate is the district’s only chance to compete with more affluent communities like Northside Independent School District (NISD).

“Grant you, they have a large tax base,” Ponce told the board of trustees, referring to NISD. “But those people are also willing to invest their money in their kids’ education, and we’ve got to be able to do the same.”

Related Stories The Rivard Report:


Quote source HPARC: “In 2009, the San Antonio City Council established the Hemisfair Park Area Redevelopment Corporation (HPARC), a local government organization appointed to manage and revitalize the Hemisfair area. HPARC is a 501(c)3 nonprofit local government corporation that was founded on seven principles that effectively guide all decisions in the redevelopment process of Hemisfair; connectivity, development, green space, balance, preservation, sustainability, and leadership.”

Brackenridge Park Conservancy.

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